Summary: Increased urate levels and gout correlate with chronic kidney disease with consensus that the primary driver of this relationship is reduced kidney function. However, a comparison of results of genome-wide association studies in serum urate levels and kidney function indicate a more complex situation. Approximately 20% of loci are shared—comprised of those in which the urate-raising allele associates with reduced kidney function, the vice versa situation, and those in which the signals/alleles are different. Although there is very little known regarding the molecular basis of the shared genetic relationship, it is clear that there is no major role for urate transporters and associated transportasome machinery. Some loci, however, do provide clues. The ATXN2 locus, with a shared signal, is one of only a small number of master regulators of expression by chromatin interaction, regulating expression of genes relevant for cholesterol and blood pressure. This suggests a role for systemic metabolic alteration. At HNF4A there is genetic heterogeneity with different genetic variants conferring risk to hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease, suggesting different pathways. Interestingly, the shared loci congregate in the olfactory receptor pathway. The genome-wide association studies have generated a range of experimentally testable hypotheses that should provide insights into the shared pathogenesis of hyperuricemia/gout and chronic kidney disease.