Background: Biliary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common biliary tumor in children. The biliary tract is classified as a favorable primary site. Therefore, patients with localized biliary RMS were included in two consecutive low-risk studies, D9602 and ARST0331, by the Children's Oncology Group (COG). The outcome for these patients treated with low-risk therapy has not been reported. Procedure: Patients with biliary RMS enrolled on COG low-risk trials D9602 or ARST0331 were analyzed. All patients received systemic chemotherapy and those with Group II (microscopic residual) or Group III (macroscopic residual) disease received 36-50.4 Gy adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Delayed primary excision (DPE) was allowed on both studies. Results: Seventeen patients with biliary RMS were treated on D9602 (n = 7) or ARST0331 (n = 10). Median age was 3.5 years (range 1.7-10.3). Ten (59%) patients had tumors >5 cm and 14 (82%) had Group III disease. Fifteen (88%) patients received RT. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 70.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 46.9-94.3%) and 76.5% (95% CI: 54.6-98.4%), respectively. The majority of patients (80%) who received RT did not have disease recurrence while both patients who did not receive RT had local relapse. Five (36%) of 14 patients with Group III disease underwent DPE; two experienced a local relapse. In the nine patients without DPE, two developed local relapse. Conclusions: Patients with localized biliary RMS treated on low-risk studies had suboptimal outcomes. These patients may benefit from therapy on intermediate-risk studies.