Research across a range of biological subdisciplines and scales, ranging from molecular to ecosystemic, provides ample evidence that living systems generally exhibit both a degree of resistance to disruption and an ability to recover following disturbance. Not only do mechanisms of robustness and resilience exist across and between systems, but those mechanisms exhibit ubiquitous and scalable commonalities in pattern and function. Mechanisms such as redundancy, plasticity, interconnectivity, and coordination of subunits appear to be crucial internal players in the determination of stability. Similarly, factors external to the system such as the amplitude, frequency, and predictability of disruptors, or the prevalence of key limiting resources, may constrain pathways of response. In the face of a rapidly changing environment, there is a pressing need to develop a common framework for describing, assessing, and predicting robustness and resilience within and across living systems.