Two recent examinations reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE), independent of body mass and body composition. Both reports postulate that neurohumoral processes that contribute to variation in REE may partly mediate the body mass effect on BP. Therefore, we examined the relationship of REE and BP in 108 asymptomatic women (a) to confirm previous findings in a novel population and (b) to examine the impact of a marker of sympathetic tone on this relationship, as this was indicated as a potentially salient intermediary in previous reports. All testing was performed during a 4-day admission to the General Clinical Research Center. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry, body composition was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and 24-hour fractionated urinary norepinephrine was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression revealed REE as a significant predictor of systolic BP (β = 0.30, P =.04), independent of race (β = 0. 28, P =.01), age (β = -0.02, P =.80), height (β = -0.38, P =.08), fat mass (β = 0.22, P =.20), fat-free mass (β = 0.08, P =.65), and 24-hour fractionated urinary norepinephrine (β = 0.06, P =.57); and the same model using diastolic BP as the dependent variable approached significance (β = 0.24, P =.09). This study affirms previous findings that REE may be a potential mediator in resting BP, independent of many well-cited factors and, additionally, a marker of sympathetic tone. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.