OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that myeloneuropathy is a presenting phenotype of paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes we retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiologic, and serologic features of 32 patients with concomitant paraneoplastic spinal cord and peripheral nervous system involvement. METHODS: Observational study investigating patients with myeloneuropathy and underlying cancer or onconeural antibody seropositivity. RESULTS: Among 32 patients with paraneoplastic myeloneuropathy, 20 (63%) were women with median age 61 years (range 27-84 years). Twenty-six patients (81%) had classified onconeural antibodies (amphiphysin, n = 8; antineuronal nuclear antibody [ANNA] type 1 [anti-Hu], n = 5; collapsin response mediator protein 5 [CRMP5] [anti-CV2], n = 6; Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody type 1 [PCA1] [anti-Yo], n = 1; Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody type 2 [PCA2], n = 2; kelch-like protein 11 [KLHL11], n = 1; and combinations thereof: ANNA1/CRMP5, n = 1; ANNA1/amphiphysin, n = 1; ANNA3/CRMP5, n = 1). Cancer was confirmed in 25 cases (onconeural antibodies, n = 19; unclassified antibodies, n = 3; no antibodies, n = 3). Paraneoplastic myeloneuropathies had asymmetric paresthesias (84%), neuropathic pain (78%), subacute onset (72%), sensory ataxia (69%), bladder dysfunction (69%), and unintentional weight loss >15 pounds (63%). Neurologic examination demonstrated concomitant distal or asymmetric hyporeflexia and hyperreflexia (81%), impaired vibration and proprioception (69%), Babinski response (68%), and asymmetric weakness (66%). MRI showed longitudinally extensive (45%), tract-specific spinal cord T2 hyperintensities (39%) and lumbar nerve root enhancement (38%). Ten of 28 (36%) were unable to ambulate independently at last follow-up (median 24 months, range 5-133 months). Combined oncologic and immunologic therapy had more favorable modified Rankin Scale scores at post-treatment follow-up compared to those receiving either oncologic or immunologic therapy alone (2 [range 1-4] vs 4 [range 2-6], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Paraneoplastic etiologies should be considered in the evaluation of subacute myeloneuropathies. Recognition of key characteristics of paraneoplastic myeloneuropathy may facilitate early tumor diagnosis and initiation of immunosuppressive treatment.