The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with symptoms of depression and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Convenience sampling and snowball sampling were used to recruit a sample of adults in China (n = 2130) from 14 February 2020 to 3 March 2020 to complete an online survey. Linear regression was used to examine the predictors of symptoms of depression and psychological distress. Living in a non-urban area and the number of confirmed cases in their city of residence were positively associated with symptoms of depression. Female gender, not being married, practicing social distancing, the amount of time spent daily on social media searching for and reading information on COVID-19, the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in their city of residence, and having confirmed or suspected cases of COVID-19 in personal networks were positively associated with psychological distress. Social distancing is a widely used public health approach for population-wide virus-containment of COVID-19. However, reductions in population-wide psychological well-being are inadvertent consequences of social distancing. There is an emerging need to negate factors that increase adverse mental health vulnerabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic.