Physiologic glomerular, tubular, and structural changes related to pregnancy may complicate the detection of underlying kidney disease in pregnant patients. Imaging studies may provide important clinical information to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease during pregnancy. Furthermore, in select patients who develop new or worsening kidney disease in pregnancy, kidney biopsy may be essential to ensure the accuracy of diagnosis and guide treatment choices. This review article will discuss the risks and benefits of various modalities used to image the kidneys and urinary tract during pregnancy to aid in the judicious selection of appropriate imaging studies that are likely to maximize clinical benefit while minimizing fetal risk. It will also highlight the potential benefits and harms associated with antepartum kidney biopsy and will offer strategies for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from kidney biopsy during pregnancy.