Objective The aim of this study was to compare failure rates of first voiding trial (VT) within 7 days and on postoperative day (POD) 1 after colpocleisis with versus without concomitant midurethral sling (MUS). Predictors of POD 1 VT failure were also examined. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing colpocleisis from January 2012 to October 2019 comparing VT outcomes with versus without MUS. Primary outcome was first VT failure within 7 days; outcomes of VTs performed on POD 1 were also assessed. Association between MUS and VT failure and predictors of POD 1 VT failure were assessed via logistic regression. Results Of 119 women, 45.4% had concomitant MUS. First VT was performed on mean POD 3.1 ± 2.2 in the MUS group versus POD 1.8 ± 1.8 in the no MUS group (P < 0.01). The MUS group was less likely to undergo POD 1 VT (50% vs 83%, P < 0.01). Failure of the first VT did not differ (22.2% with MUS vs 32.8% without MUS, P = 0.20); no association between VT failure and MUS was noted (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-2.1). There were 68.1% (81/119) of participants who underwent POD 1 VT, MUS was performed in 33.3% (27/81). The POD 1 failure did not differ between those with 33.3% versus 40.7% without MUS (P = 0.52). Midurethral sling was not associated with POD 1 VT failure (aOR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.27-3.23). In women undergoing POD 1 VT, preoperative postvoid residual was associated with VT failure (aOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01-1.92). Conclusions In women undergoing colpocleisis, MUS was not associated with VT failure within 7 days or on POD 1. Increased preoperative postvoid residual was associated with POD 1 VT failure.