Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. It is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and progresses to end-stage kidney disease in up to 40% of patients about 20 years after diagnosis. Additionally, IgAN is associated with significant mortality. The diagnosis currently necessitates a kidney biopsy, as no biomarker sufficiently specific and sensitive is available to supplant the procedure. Patients display significant heterogeneity in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, renal progression, and long-term outcomes across diverse racial and ethnic populations. Recent advances in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of the disease have led to the proposal of a four-hit hypothesis supporting an autoimmune process. To date, there is no disease-specific treatment but, with a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis, new therapeutic approaches are currently being tested in clinical trials. In this review, we examine the multiple facets and most recent advances of this interesting disease.