Injured tubule epithelium stimulates a profibrotic milieu that accelerates loss of function in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study tested the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in the progressive loss of kidney function in aristolochic acid (AA) nephropathy, a model of CKD. Mean serum creatinine concentration increased in wild-type (WT) littermates treated with AA, whereas Stat1-/- mice were protected. Focal increases in the apical expression of kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 were observed in the proximal tubules of WT mice with AA treatment but were absent in Stat1-/- mice in the treatment group as well as in both control groups. A composite injury score, an indicator of proximal tubule injury, was reduced in Stat1-/- mice treated with AA. Increased expression of integrin-b6 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 in proximal tubules as well as interstitial collagen and fibronectin were observed in WT mice following AA treatment but were all decreased in AA-treated Stat1-/- mice. The data indicated that STAT1 activation facilitated the development of progressive kidney injury and interstitial fibrosis in AA nephropathy.