Paradoxical Increase of 24-Hour Urinary Aldosterone Levels in Obese Patients with Resistant Hypertension on a High Salt Diet

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Background: Having previously reported that aldosterone levels increase progressively with body mass index (BMI), the current analysis was done to determine to what extent this association is related to dietary high salt intake. We anticipated that aldosterone levels would decrease with higher sodium status consistent with classical suppression of aldosterone release secondary to progressive fluid retention induced by high dietary sodium intake. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a large diverse cohort of 2,705 patients with resistant hypertension (HTN) seen in a referral HTN Clinic. Dietary sodium intake was indexed by 24-hour (h) urinary sodium (UNa), aldosterone status was determined by plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, and 24 h urinary aldosterone (UAldo). Patients with normal weight served as control. Results: In this study, 1,572 individuals with complete 24 h urine collections were analyzed. Mean BMI was 32.5 ± 7.1 kg/m2 and ranged from 24.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2 (first quartile) to 41.0 ± 4.2 kg/m2 (fourth quartile). BMI was positively associated with 24 h UNa and UAldo levels (P < 0.0001), 24 h UNa and UAldo. There was a positively stronger correlation in obese (r = 0.273, P < 0.0001) compared with normal weight individuals (r = 0.108, P = 0.0342) independent of number and classes of antihypertensive medications. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that there is an altered regulation of aldosterone in obese patients in the setting of high dietary salt intake.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Dudenbostel T; Li P; Calhoun DA
  • Start Page

  • 600
  • End Page

  • 608
  • Volume

  • 34
  • Issue

  • 6