Objective To compare the responsiveness to change of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) asthma impact, pain interference, fatigue, depressive symptoms, mobility, and peer relationship scales to a legacy scale, the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Methods Two hundred and twenty-nine child-parent dyads from public insurance programs were enrolled. PROMIS pediatric short forms (SFs) and the PAQLQ were used to measure health-related quality of life across four time points (T1-T4) over 2 years. The Asthma Control and Communication Instrument was used to measure the change in asthma control, and the Global Rating of Change (GRC) Index for breathing problems and overall health was used to measure the change in health status. Responsiveness was tested by comparing the changes in health-related quality of life with the changes in asthma control and health status over time using t tests, generalized estimating equations, and relative validity approaches. Magnitudes of the responsiveness between the Pediatric PROMIS and PAQLQ were assessed through statistical significance, Cohen's d effect size (ES), and standardized response mean (SRM). Results The PROMIS asthma impact scale and all PAQLQ scales exhibited significant responsiveness (p's<0.05) and small to medium ES/SRM when anchored to asthma control, GRC breathing problems, and overall health. Relative validity, especially related to change in asthma control status and GRC breathing problems, was equivalent. PROMIS pain interference, fatigue, and mobility SFs also indicated adequate responsiveness. Conclusions The PROMIS asthma impact SF indicated similar responsiveness to the PAQLQ scales. Due to its brevity and responsiveness, the PROMIS asthma impact SF is useful for clinical practice or research.