Heme degradation and oxidative stress in murine models for hemoglobinopathies: Thalassemia, sickle cell disease and hemoglobin C disease

Academic Article


  • Red blood cells with abnormal hemoglobins (Hb) are frequently associated with increased hemoglobin autoxidation, accumulation of iron in membranes, increased membrane damage and a shorter red cell life span. The mechanisms for many of these changes have not been elucidated. We have shown in our previous studies that hydrogen peroxide formed in association with hemoglobin autoxidation reacts with hemoglobin and initiates a cascade of reactions that results in heme degradation with the formation of two fluorescent emission bands and the release of iron. Heme degradation was assessed by measuring the fluorescent band at ex 321 nm. A 5.6 fold increase in fluorescence was found in red cells from sickle transgenic mice that expressed exclusively human globins when compared to red cells from control mice. When sickle transgenic mice co-express the γM transgene, that expresses HbF and inhibits polymerization, heme degradation is decreased. Mice expressing exclusively hemoglobin C had a 6.9 fold increase in fluorescence compared to control. Heme degradation was also increased 3.5 fold in β-thalassemic mice generated by deletion of murine βmajor. Membrane bound IgG and red cell metHb were highly correlated with the intensity of the fluorescent heme degradation band. These results suggest that degradation of the heme moiety in intact hemoglobin and/or degradation of free heme by peroxides are higher in pathological RBCs. Concomitant release of iron appears to be responsible for the membrane damage that leads to IgG binding and the removal of red cells from circulation.
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    Author List

  • Nagababu E; Fabry ME; Nagel RL; Rifkind JM
  • Start Page

  • 60
  • End Page

  • 66
  • Volume

  • 41
  • Issue

  • 1