Objective: This article will discuss the indications for Contrast Enhanced Spectral Mammography (CESM) with a focus on imaging interpretation including diagnostic dilemmas and pitfalls which may be encountered in practice. Conclusion: Understanding potential diagnostic dilemmas and pitfalls of CESM allows for enhanced interpretation. The clinical utilization of Contrast Enhanced Spectral Mammography (CESM) has increased significantly over the last few years. CESM demonstrates comparable sensitivity and accuracy to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of breast cancer but is less time consuming and less expensive. Because of this, CESM is now being used in lieu of MRI for many diagnostic indicators including the evaluation of abnormal mammographic findings, extent of disease, and response to neoadjuvant therapy. Additionally, ongoing research into the role of CESM in asymptomatic screening for breast cancer is evolving. As this technique becomes more popular, focusing on appropriate technique and interpretation is important. This article reviews the current and potential roles of CESM. It provides examples of CESM utilized for diagnostic indications while highlighting diagnostic dilemmas, pitfalls, and artifacts that may be encountered when interpreting CESM images.