The field of bioactive lipids is ever expanding with discoveries of novel lipid molecules that promote human health. Adopting a lipidomic-Assisted approach, two new families of previously unrecognized saturated hydroxy fatty acids (SHFAs), namely, hydroxystearic and hydroxypalmitic acids, consisting of isomers with the hydroxyl group at different positions, were identified in milk. Among the various regio-isomers synthesized, those carrying the hydroxyl at the 7-and 9-positions presented growth inhibitory activities against various human cancer cell lines, including A549, Caco-2, and SF268 cells. In addition, 7-and 9-hydroxystearic acids were able to suppress β-cell apoptosis induced by proinflammatory cytokines, increasing the possibility that they can be beneficial in countering autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. 7-(R)-Hydroxystearic acid exhibited the highest potency both in cell growth inhibition and in suppressing β-cell death. We propose that such naturally occurring SHFAs may play a role in the promotion and protection of human health.