Polyvalent therapeutic vaccine for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Immunoinformatics approach to study co-stimulation of cytokines and GLUT1 receptors

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide disease that have an impact on individuals of all ages causing micro and macro vascular impairments due to hyperglycemic internal environment. For ultimate treatment to cure T2DM, association of diabetes with immune components provides a strong basis for immunotherapies and vaccines developments that could stimulate the immune cells to minimize the insulin resistance and initiate gluconeogenesis through an insulin independent route. Methodology: Immunoinformatics based approach was used to design a polyvalent vaccine for T2DM that involved data accession, antigenicity analysis, T-cell epitopes prediction, conservation and proteasomal evaluation, functional annotation, interactomic and in silico binding affinity analysis. Results: We found the binding affinity of antigenic peptides with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class-I molecules for immune activation to control T2DM. We found 13-epitopes of 9 amino acid residues for multiple alleles of MHC class-I bears significant binding affinity. The downstream signaling resulted by T-cell activation is directly regulated by the molecular weight, amino acid properties and affinity of these epitopes. Each epitope has important percentile rank with significant ANN IC50 values. These high score potential epitopes were linked using AAY, EAAAK linkers and HBHA adjuvant to generate T-cell polyvalent vaccine with a molecular weight of 35.6 kDa containing 322 amino acids residues. In silico analysis of polyvalent construct showed the significant binding affinity (- 15.34 Kcal/mol) with MHC Class-I. This interaction would help to understand our hypothesis, potential activation of T-cells and stimulatory factor of cytokines and GLUT1 receptors. Conclusion: Our system-level immunoinformatics approach is suitable for designing potential polyvalent therapeutic vaccine candidates for T2DM by reducing hyperglycemia and enhancing metabolic activities through the immune system.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Muhammad SA; Ashfaq H; Zafar S; Munir F; Jamshed MB; Chen J; Zhang Q
  • Volume

  • 21
  • Issue

  • 1