Introduction The incidence of anal cancer in United States has increased over of the last few decades impacting immunosuppressed populations like solid organ transplant recipients, in particular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anal dysplasia among solid organ transplant patients. We also attempted to identify factors that predispose solid organ transplant recipients to developing anal dysplasia.
Methods and materials Patients presenting to transplant office for routine care were recruited to participate in the study. All anal cytology specimens were collected using standard anal pap technique. The results were assessed using Bethesda classification. Information on perceived risk factors for development of anal dysplasia among our subjects was obtained.
Results Among 80 patients approached, 47 agreed to participate in the study. Of all the samples 19.1% had an inadequate amount of specimen to perform any analysis. Dysplastic cells were found in 10.5% of the specimens available for analysis. We were not able to identify any risk factors including age, gender distribution, smoking, and duration of immunosuppression that were statistically significant different between patients with anal dysplasia versus those without anal dysplasia.
Conclusions The rate of anal dysplasia detectable on cytology is high enough to warrant anal dysplasia screening in transplant recipients, which can then be followed up with high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy. Defining a cohort of patients among solid organ transplant recipients who are at an increased risk for the development of anal dysplasia mandating screening continues to be a challenge.