Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a potentially fatal blood disorder resulting from acquired deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity. Despite recent advances in early diagnosis and novel therapeutics, the mortality rate of acute iTTP remains as high as 10% to 20%. Moreover, a reliable clinical and laboratory parameter that predicts disease severity and outcomes is lacking. We show in the present study that plasma levels of syndecan-1 (Sdc-1) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) on admission were dramatically increased in patients with acute iTTP and remained substantially elevated in a subset of patients compared with healthy controls. The elevated admission plasma levels of Sdc-1 and sTM were associated with abnormal Glasgow coma scale scores, low estimated glomerular filtration rates, the need for intensive care, and in-hospital mortality rates. Moreover, a further simultaneous increase in plasma Sdc-1 and sTM levels at the time of clinical response/remission (eg, when normalization of platelet counts and substantial reduction of serum lactate dehydrogenase activity were achieved) was highly predictive of iTTP recurrence. These results demonstrate that endothelial injury, resulting from disseminated microvascular thromboses, is severe and persistent in patients with acute iTTP. Plasma levels of Sdc-1 and sTM on admission and in remission are predictive of in-hospital mortality and recurrence of acute iTTP, respectively. Thus, an incorporation of such novel plasma biomarkers into the risk assessment in acute iTTP may help implement a more vigorous and intensive therapeutic strategy for these patients.