PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the current evidence supporting the use of precision medicine in the delivery of acute renal replacement therapy (RRT) to critically ill patients, focusing on timing, solute control, anticoagulation and technologic innovation. RECENT FINDINGS: Precision medicine is most applicable to the timing of RRT in critically ill patients. As recent randomized controlled trials have failed to provide consensus on when to initiate acute RRT, the decision to start acute RRT should be based on individual patient clinical characteristics (e.g. severity of the disease, evolution of clinical parameters) and logistic considerations (e.g. organizational issues, availability of machines and disposables). The delivery of a dynamic dialytic dose is another application of precision medicine, as patients may require different and varying dialysis doses depending on individual patient factors and clinical course. Although regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is recommended as first-line anticoagulation for continuous RRT, modifications to RCA protocols and consideration of other anticoagulants should be individualized to the patient's clinical condition. Finally, the evolution of RRT technology has improved precision in dialysis delivery through increased machine accuracy, connectivity to the electronic medical record and automated reduction of downtime. SUMMARY: RRT has become a complex treatment for critically ill patients, which allows for the prescription to be precisely tailored to the different clinical requirements.