High-resolution yeast quiescence profiling in human-like media reveals complex influences of auxotrophy and nutrient availability

Academic Article


  • Yeast cells survive in stationary phase culture by entering quiescence, which is measured by colony-forming capacity upon nutrient re-exposure. Yeast chronological lifespan (CLS) studies, employing the comprehensive collection of gene knockout strains, have correlated weakly between independent laboratories, which is hypothesized to reflect differential interaction between the deleted genes, auxotrophy, media composition, and other assay conditions influencing quiescence. This hypothesis was investigated by high-throughput quiescence profiling of the parental prototrophic strain, from which the gene deletion strain libraries were constructed, and all possible auxotrophic allele combinations in that background. Defined media resembling human cell culture media promoted long-term quiescence and was used to assess effects of glucose, ammonium sulfate, auxotrophic nutrient availability, target of rapamycin signaling, and replication stress. Frequent, high-replicate measurements of colony-forming capacity from cultures aged past 60┬ádays provided profiles of quiescence phenomena such as gasping and hormesis. Media acidification was assayed in parallel to assess correlation. Influences of leucine, methionine, glucose, and ammonium sulfate metabolism were clarified, and a role for lysine metabolism newly characterized, while histidine and uracil perturbations had less impact. Interactions occurred between glucose, ammonium sulfate, auxotrophy, auxotrophic nutrient limitation, aeration, TOR signaling, and/or replication stress. Weak correlation existed between media acidification and maintenance of quiescence. In summary, experimental factors, uncontrolled across previous genome-wide yeast CLS studies, influence quiescence and interact extensively, revealing quiescence as a complex metabolic and developmental process that should be studied in a prototrophic context, omitting ammonium sulfate from defined media, and employing highly replicable protocols.
  • Published In

  • Geroscience  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Santos SM; Laflin S; Broadway A; Burnet C; Hartheimer J; Rodgers J; Smith DL; Hartman JL
  • Start Page

  • 941
  • End Page

  • 964
  • Volume

  • 43
  • Issue

  • 2