ABSTRACT: Women living with HIV (WLWH) have lower employment rates and more difficulty finding and keeping employment compared with their counterparts without HIV. These disparities affect physical, psychological, and socioeconomic outcomes, and they may compound the disadvantages associated with living with HIV. Although historical literature has emphasized the impact of clinical factors on employment, current evidence suggests that socioeconomic and psychosocial factors associated with HIV should be included for a more comprehensive view. Based on this broader inclusion, a conceptual framework is presented describing how socioeconomic and psychosocial characteristics influence employment acquisition and maintenance among WLWH. The framework posits that there is a reciprocal relationship between employment acquisition and occupational productivity, and psychological health, physical health, social support, and empowerment. Implications for future research and interventions include (a) an extended conceptualization of vocational rehabilitation and (b) the use of peer support groups to increase social capital, empowerment, knowledge, and resources among WLWH.