EffectorK, a comprehensive resource to mine for Ralstonia, Xanthomonas, and other published effector interactors in the Arabidopsis proteome

Academic Article


  • Pathogens deploy effector proteins that interact with host proteins to manipulate the host physiology to the pathogen's own benefit. However, effectors can also be recognized by host immune proteins, leading to the activation of defence responses. Effectors are thus essential components in determining the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. Despite major efforts to decipher effector functions, our current knowledge on effector biology is scattered and often limited. In this study, we conducted two systematic large-scale yeast two-hybrid screenings to detect interactions between Arabidopsis thaliana proteins and effectors from two vascular bacterial pathogens: Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris. We then constructed an interactomic network focused on Arabidopsis and effector proteins from a wide variety of bacterial, oomycete, fungal, and invertebrate pathogens. This network contains our experimental data and protein–protein interactions from 2,035 peer-reviewed publications (48,200 Arabidopsis–Arabidopsis and 1,300 Arabidopsis–effector protein interactions). Our results show that effectors from different species interact with both common and specific Arabidopsis interactors, suggesting dual roles as modulators of generic and adaptive host processes. Network analyses revealed that effector interactors, particularly “effector hubs” and bacterial core effector interactors, occupy important positions for network organization, as shown by their larger number of protein interactions and centrality. These interactomic data were incorporated in EffectorK, a new graph-oriented knowledge database that allows users to navigate the network, search for homology, or find possible paths between host and/or effector proteins. EffectorK is available at www.effectork.org and allows users to submit their own interactomic data.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • González-Fuente M; Carrère S; Monachello D; Marsella BG; Cazalé AC; Zischek C; Mitra RM; Rezé N; Cottret L; Mukhtar MS
  • Start Page

  • 1257
  • End Page

  • 1270
  • Volume

  • 21
  • Issue

  • 10