© 2020 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved. Limited data exist regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP) through mid- to late-life and late-life cardiac function and heart failure (HF) risk. Among 4578 HF-free participants in the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) attending the fifth visit (2011-2013; age 75±5 years), time-averaged cumulative SBP was calculated as the sum of averaged SBPs from adjacent consecutive visits (visits 1-5) indexed to total observation time (24±1 years). Calculations were performed using measured SBPs and also incorporating antihypertensive medication specific effect constants (underlying SBP). Outcomes included comprehensive echocardiography at visit 5 and post-visit 5 incident HF, HF with preserved ejection fraction, and reduced ejection fraction. Higher cumulative SBP was associated with greater left ventricular mass and worse diastolic measures (all P<0.001), associations that were stronger with underlying compared with cumulative SBP (all P<0.05). At 5.6±1.2 years follow-up post-visit 5, higher cumulative measured and underlying SBP were associated with incident HF (hazard ratio per 10 mm Hg for measured: 1.12 [1.01-1.24]; underlying: 1.19 [95% CI, 1.10-1.30]) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (measured: 1.15 [1.00-1.33]; underlying: 1.28 [1.14-1.45]), but not HF with reduced ejection fraction (measured: 1.11 [0.94-1.32]; underlying: 1.11 [0.96-1.24]). Associations with HF and HF with preserved ejection fraction were more robust with cumulative underlying compared with measured SBP (all P<0.05). Time-averaged cumulative SBP in mid to late life is associated with worse cardiac function and risk of incident HF, especially HF with preserved ejection fraction, in late life. These associations were stronger considering underlying as opposed to measured SBP, highlighting the importance of prevention and effective treatment of hypertension to prevent late-life cardiac dysfunction and HF.