Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the success of hydroxyapatite (HA) -coated and machined titanium (Ti) implants in a 5-year randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted at 2 centers. Materials and Methods: Each of 120 edentulous patients received HA-coated threaded, HA-coated cylindric, and machined Ti threaded implants in a randomized design using 5 or 6 implants. Digital radiographs allowed for yearly measurements of bone loss. Calibrated clinicians also measured mobility, Gingival Index, Plaque Index, probing depth, and recession. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the proportion of ailing implants (defined as less than 2 mm of alveolar bone loss over 5 years) for each type of implant design. The criteria employed to assess implant outcome included the need for successful implants to lose less than 2 mm of bone support over the 5 years following placement of the prosthesis. Results: This analysis revealed that 95.2% of machined Ti threaded implants and 97.92% of HA-coated threaded implants were successful, while 99.0% of HA-coated cylindric implants experienced less than 2 mm of bone loss (P < .06). Discussion: All types of implants placed in this study had success rates above 95%. Conclusion: Over 5 years, the success rate tended to favor HA-coated implants.