Voluntary running enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis, with consequences for hippocampal-dependent learning ability and mood regulation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that voluntary running induces unique and dynamic gene expression changes specifically within the adult-born hippocampal neurons, with significant impact on genes involved in neuronal maturation and human diseases. We identify the regulator of G protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a key factor that mediates running impact on adult-born neurons. RGS6 overexpression mimics the positive effects of voluntary running on morphological and physiological maturation of adult new neurons and reduced sensitivity of adult-born neurons to the inhibitory effect of GABAB (γ-Aminobutyric acid B) receptor activation. Knocking down RGS6 abolishes running-enhanced neuronal maturation and hippocampal neurogenesis-dependent learning and anxiolytic effect. Our study provides a data resource showing genome-wide intrinsic molecular changes in adult-born hippocampal neurons that contribute to voluntary running-induced neurogenesis.