Cholera toxin (CT), the most commonly used mucosal adjuvant in experimental animals, is unsuitable for humans because of potent diarrhea- inducing properties. We have constructed two CT-A subunit mutants, e.g., serine→phenylalanine at position 61 (S61F), and glutamic acid→lysine at 112 (E112K) by site-directed mutagenesis. Neither mutant CT (mCT), in contrast to native CT (nCT), induced adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation, cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation, or fluid accumulation in ligated mouse ileal loops. Both mCTs retained adjuvant properties, since mice given ovalbumin (OVA) subcutaneously with nCTs or nCT, but not OVA alone developed high-titered serum anti-OVA immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies (Abs) which were largely of IgG1 and IgG2b subclasses. Although nCT induced brisk IgE Ab responses, both mCTs elicited lower anti-OVA IgE Abs. OVA-specific CD4+ T cells were induced by nCT and by mCTs, and quantitative analysis of secreted cytokines and mRNA revealed a T helper cell 2 (Th2)-type response. These results now show that the toxic properties of CT can be separated from adjuvanticity, and the mCTs induce Ab responses via a Th2 cell pathway.