Female rhesus macaques were nasally immunized with p55(gag) (p55) of SIV and cholera toxin as a mucosal adjuvant. Nasal immunization induced Ag- specific IgA and IgG Abs in mucosal secretions (e.g., cervicovaginal secretions, rectal washes, and saliva) and serum. Furthermore, high numbers of p55-specific IgA and IgG Ab-forming cells were induced in mucosal effector sites, i.e., uterine cervix, intestinal lamina propria, and nasal passage. p55-specific CD4+ T cells in both systemic and mucosal compartments expressed IFN-γ and IL-2 (Th1-type)- as well as IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10 (Th2- type)-specific mRNA. Moreover, p55-specific CTL activity was demonstrated in lymphocytes from blood, tonsils, and other lymphoid tissues. These results show that nasal immunization with SIV p55 with cholera toxin elicits both Th1- and selective Th2-type cytokine responses associated with the induction of SIV-specific mucosal and serum Abs, and CTL activity. These results offer a promise for the development of protective mucosal immunity to SIV.