Native cholera toxin (nCT) and the heat-labile toxin 1 (nLT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are AB5-type enterotoxins. Both nCT and nLT are effective adjuvants that promote mucosal and systemic immunity to protein Ags given by either oral or nasal routes. Previous studies have shown that nCT as mucosal adjuvant requires IL-4 and induces CD4-positive (CD4+) Th2-type responses, while nLT up-regulates Th1 cell production of IFN-γ and IL-4-independent Th2-type responses. To address the relative importance of the A or B subunits in CD4+ Th cell subset responses, chimeras of CT-A/LT-B and LT-A/CT-B were constructed. Mice nasally immunized with CT-A/LT-B or LT-A/CT-B and the weak immunogen OVA developed OVA-specific, plasma IgG Abs titers similar to those induced by either nCT or nLT. Both CT-A/LT-B and LT-A/CT-B promoted secretory IgA anti-OVA Ab, which established their retention of mucosal adjuvant activity. The CT-A/LT-B chimera, like nLT, induced OVA-specific mucosal and peripheral CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-4-independent Th2-type responses, with plasma IgG2a anti-OVA Abs. Further, LT-A/CT-B, like nCT, promoted plasma IgG1 more than IgG2a and IgE Abs with OVA-specific CD4+ Th2 cells secreting high levels of IL-4, but not 1FN-γ. The LT-A/CT-B chimera and nCT, but not the CT-A/LT AILT-B chimera or nLT, suppressed IL-12R expression and IFN-γ production by activated T cells. Our results show that the B subunits of enterotoxin adjuvants regulate IL-12R expression and subsequent Th cell subset responses.