Botulism has classically been considered to be a food- and water-borne disease. However, it was recently classified by the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institute of Health) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a Category A agent. Thus, the botulinum exotoxin, a neurotoxin, could be easily disseminated by bioterrorists through the air-borne route with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this regard, a high priority should be given to the development of a safe and effective mucosal vaccine to protect against botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) since it is well known that the mucosal immune system is the first line of defense against major pathogens. Further, mucosal immunization has been shown to induce both mucosal and systemic immunity to pathogens. By contrast, the current injection-type vaccine only provides protective immunity in the systemic compartment. Clearly, the development of a safe and effective mucosal vaccine against this toxin should be a high priority. In this regard, it has been shown that both nasal and oral immunization approaches have been taken in order to protect from BoNT intoxication. In this article, we will discuss the importance of the development of a mucosal vaccine against botulinum and introduce current aspects of BoNT mucosal vaccines, which show that they effectively prevent mucosal BoNT intoxication. © 2007 Future Drugs Ltd.