Immunological memory induced by nasal immunization with adjuvant-combined influenza vaccine was analyzed in different ages and strains of mice. The memory activities were assessed by secondary nasal-wash IgA and serum IgG antibody (Ab) responses and protection against challenge infection with a lethal dose of influenza virus. Mice were primed with 0.1 μg of vaccine and boosted with 0.1 or 1.0 μg vaccine 1 (short-term memory)- or 17 (long-term memory)-months later. Influenza-specific short-term memory responses in young adult BALB/c mice (2-month-old) were significantly higher than those of long-term memory activities in mice boosted at 19 months of age. However, those influenza-specific long-term memory responses provided protective immunity against influenza virus challenge and were higher than short-term memory in aged mice primed at 18-month-old and boosted 1 month later. These results show that the age at which initial nasal immunization is given is critically important in order to induce protective immunity in aged mice. Similar findings were noted in the C3H mouse strain; however, C57BL/6 mice failed to induce influenza-specific immune responses in both young adult and aged mice. These results indicate that low doses of cholera toxin B subunit (supplemented with 0.2% of hole toxin) combined nasal vaccine may required further improvement in order to provide protective immunity in human use. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.