The antiviral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir (OSV) is widely used to suppress viral replication in the treatment of influenza. Here, we report that OSV administration significantly suppressed respiratory mucosal secretory IgA responses with respect to antigen (Ag)-specific antibody (Ab) production and also the induction of Ag-specific IgA Ab-forming cells, but not systemic IgG responses, in weanling mice as a model of pediatric influenza. Neutralizing activities of the airway fluids in oral OSV-treated mice were significantly less than those of sham-treated mice. Our findings suggest the risk of re-infection in patients showing a low mucosal response following OSV treatment. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.