The 3-Dimensional Construction of the Average 11-Year-Old Child Face: A Clinical Evaluation and Application

Academic Article


  • Purpose: This article describes construction of the average face and its application in the clinical environment. Subjects and Methods: A total of 72 children, mean age 11.8 years, were selected for the study. Laser-scanned images of the subjects were obtained under a reproducible and controlled environment with 2 Minolta Vivid 900 (Minolta, Osaka, Japan) optical laser-scanning devices assembled as a stereo pair. A set of left and right scanned images was taken for each subject and each scan took an average of 2.5 seconds. These scanned images were processed and merged to form a composite 3-dimensional soft tissue reproduction of the subjects using commercially-available reverse modeling software. The differences in facial morphology were measured using shell deviation color maps. The average face was used to compare differences between male and female groups and 3 subjects with craniofacial anomalies. Results: The difference between the average male and female face was 0.460 ± 0.353 mm. The areas of greatest deviation were at the zygomatic area and lower jaw line, with the males being more prominent. The results of the surface deviation between the subjects with craniofacial anomalies were significant. Conclusions: The construction of the average face provides an interesting perspective into measuring changes in groups of patients and also acts as a useful template for the comparison of craniofacial anomalies. © 2006 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Kau CH; Zhurov A; Richmond S; Bibb R; Sugar A; Knox J; Hartles F
  • Start Page

  • 1086
  • End Page

  • 1092
  • Volume

  • 64
  • Issue

  • 7