Neoclassical facial canons in young adults

Academic Article


  • Background: Facial proportional analysis is commonly used in the preoperative planning as well as in consultation for aesthetic and reconstructive operations. Neoclassical canons, introduced by Ancient Greeks, have been used to describe the facial morphological features for many years. In this paper, the validity of 7 neoclassical canons was tested in young adult Greeks. The frequency and kind of variations were noted. Materials and Methods: Direct anthropometric landmarks, obtained from 163 volunteer subjects, were used to test the neoclassical canons of the Greek face. These measurements produced 7 neoclassical canons: the 3-section facial profile canon (tr-n=n-sn=sn-gn), the naso-aural proportion canon (n-sn=sa-sba), the naso-aural inclination canon, the orbital canon (en-en=ex-en), the orbitonasal canon (en-en=al-al), the naso-oral canon (ch-ch=1+1/2 al-al), and the nasofacial canon (al-al=1/4 zy-zy). Results were compared with North American Caucasians published in a previous study. Results: A significant difference was found between genders in the orbital proportion canon, the orbitonasal canon, and the nasofacial and the naso-oral proportion canon. The difference between the 2 races was demonstrated in the orbitonasal proportion canon, the naso-aural inclination canon, and the dominant variation of the nasooral proportion canon. The mean frequency of all valid canons was greater in White Americans than in Greeks but similar among Greek genders. Conclusions: In the majority of Greeks, the neoclassical canons were not valid. In absence of valid proportion indices, this study offers surgeons guidance in assessing facial characteristics of Greek patients in preparation for corrective surgery and evaluation of postoperative results. Copyright © 2012 Mutaz B. Habal, MD.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Zacharopoulos GV; Manios A; De Bree E; Kau CH; Petousis M; Zacharopoulou I; Kouremenos N
  • Start Page

  • 1693
  • End Page

  • 1698
  • Volume

  • 23
  • Issue

  • 6