Introduction: Liver transplantation is a life-changing event for patients and survival following transplantation has improved significantly since the first transplantation in 1967. Following liver transplantation, patients face a unique set of healthcare management decisions including transplantation-specific complications, recurrence of primary liver disease, as well as metabolic and malignancy concerns related to immunosuppression. As more patients with liver disease receive transplantation and live longer, understanding and managing these patient will require not only transplant specialist but also local subspecialist and primary care physicians. Areas covered: This review covers common issues related to the management of patients following liver transplantation including immunosuppression, liver allograft dysfunction, metabolic complications, as well as routine health maintenance such as immunizations and cancer screening. Expert Opinion: Optimizing medical care for patients following liver transplant will benefit from ensuring all providers, not just transplant specialist, have a basic understanding of the common issues encountered in the post-transplant patient. This review provides an overview of common healthcare concerns and management options for patients following liver transplantation.