Background: It has been suggested that greater volumes of cement injected during kyphoplasty correlate with improved vertebral body height restoration and kyphotic angulation correction. However, there is little evidence tying cement volume to patient outcomes. Here, we analyzed the association between cement volume and outcome utilizing indices of pain, disability, and quality of life. Methods: One hundred and thirty-six patients undergoing kyphoplasty were analyzed retrospectively. The total volume of bone cement injected was recorded intraoperatively for each patient; the average total cement volume was 5.44 cc. Pre- and postoperative outcome indices were documented, using the visual analog scale (VAS), Roland-Morris disability index (RMDI), and the EuroQol 5 Dimension instrument (EQ5D). Pearson's correlations and linear regression models were derived for the association of total cement volume with each of the patient outcome measures. This was a retrospective cohort study. Results: The average change in VAS, RMDI, and EQ5D scores for all patients was -6.8, +8.3, and +0.41, respectively. For VAS, RMDI, and EQ5D improvements, neither Pearson's correlations nor multiple linear regression models revealed a correlation or an association with total cement volume. Conclusion: For patients undergoing kyphoplasty, outcomes were not associated with the total injected cement volume; all had a significant reduction in pain and most exhibited decreased disability with improved quality of life.