Progressive antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis has created a pressing need for treatment optimisations for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this Review, we aim to highlight urgent needs in global STI management, including: (1) improved surveillance to monitor antimicrobial resistance and clinical outcomes; (2) systematic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluations to ensure resistance suppression and bacterial eradication at all sites of infection; (3) development of novel, affordable antimicrobials; and (4) advancements in new molecular and point-of-care tests to detect antimicrobial resistance determinants. Antimicrobial resistance among STIs is a global public health crisis. Continuous efforts to develop novel antimicrobials will be essential, in addition to other public health interventions to reduce the global STI burden. Apart from prevention through safer sexual practices, the development of STI vaccines to prevent transmission is a crucial research priority.