OBJECTIVES: We compared the time to antibiotic (TTA) for pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) presenting at regional emergency departments (EDs) with those presenting at a pediatric referral ED, and examined its association with need for aggressive medical care. METHODS: We abstracted data for pediatric oncology patients (age, <21 years) admitted for FN between August 2012 and August 2017 at a single children's hospital and compared the TTA between those referred from a regional ED across the state and those admitted via the referral ED at the children's hospital. Factors associated with delay in antibiotic administration (TTA, >60 minutes) were estimated using generalized linear modeling with generalized estimating equations (GEEs). Delay in antibiotic administration was examined for its association with the need for aggressive medical care (>1 fluid bolus, intensive care unit admission, inotropic or invasive ventilator support) within 24 hours of admission as an exploratory aim. RESULTS: Three-hundred eighty-nine FN admissions (regional ED, 26.7%; referral ED, 73.3%) occurred in 205 eligible patients. Median TTA was significantly (P < 0.0001) greater among patients presenting at a regional ED (117.5 minutes [range, 9-722 minutes]) vs referral ED (46 minutes [range, 6-378 minutes]). Presentation at regional ED was the only factor associated with delay in antibiotic administration (odds ratio, 9.73; 95% confidence interval, 5.37-17.63; P < 0.0001). Delay in antibiotic administration was not associated with greater need for aggressive medical care (odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-3.29; P = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric oncology patients with FN presenting to regional EDs have longer TTA as compared with those presenting to a referral ED at a children's hospital.