Old World Monkeys are less than ideal transplantation models for testing pig organs lacking three carbohydrate antigens (Triple-Knockout)

Academic Article


  • Triple-knockout (TKO) pigs (with added protective human transgenes) are likely to be optimal sources of organs for clinical organ xenotransplantation because many humans have minimal or no natural antibody to TKO pig cells. However, Old World monkeys (OWMs) have naturally-existing antibodies directed to TKO cells. We measured anti-pig IgM/IgG binding, and complement-dependent cytotoxicity to wild-type (WT), α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO), and TKO pig peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using sera from humans, several OWMs, and two New World monkeys (NWMs). Furthermore, we compared survival of GTKO (n = 5) and TKO (n = 3) pig kidneys in baboons. OWMs had significantly greater IgM binding and cytotoxicity to TKO PBMCs than humans or NWMs. Mean anti-TKO IgM was significantly higher in OWMs and significantly lower in NWMs than in humans. Cytotoxicity of OWM sera to TKO PBMCs was significantly greater than of human serum, but there was no significant difference between human and NWM sera. The median survival of TKO pig kidneys (4 days) in baboons was significantly shorter than that of GTKO kidneys (136 days) (p < 0.05). Even though considered ideal for clinical xenotransplantation, the presence of naturally-existing antibodies to TKO pig cells in OWMs complicates the transplantation of TKO pig kidneys in OWMs.
  • Published In

  • Scientific Reports  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Yamamoto T; Iwase H; Patel D; Jagdale A; Ayares D; Anderson D; Eckhoff DE; Cooper DKC; Hara H
  • Volume

  • 10
  • Issue

  • 1