© 2020 The incidence of common, metabolic diseases (e.g. obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes) with complex genetic etiology has been steadily increasing nationally and globally. While identification of a genetic model that explains susceptibility and risk for these diseases has been pursued over several decades, no clear paradigm has yet been found to disentangle the genetic basis of polygenic/complex disease development. Since the evolution of the eukaryotic cell involved a symbiotic interaction between the antecedents of the mitochondrion and nucleus (which itself is a genetic hybrid), we suggest that this history provides a rational basis for investigating whether genetic interaction and co-evolution of these genomes still exists. We propose that both mitochondrial and Mendelian, or “mito-Mendelian” genetics play a significant role in cell function, and thus disease risk. This paradigm contemplates the natural variation and co-evolution of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA backgrounds on multiple mitochondrial functions that are discussed herein, including energy production, cell signaling and immune response, which collectively can influence disease development. At the nexus of these processes is the economy of mitochondrial metabolism, programmed by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes.