Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare and serious condition that is associated with high health-care resource use. The goal of this study was to estimate hospital-related resource use and costs by using a national, prospective registry of patients who were diagnosed with IPF or who had their diagnosis confirmed at the enrolling center in the past 6 months in the United States. Methods: Participants enrolled between June 5, 2014, and April 12, 2016, in the ongoing Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Prospective Outcomes Registry were included (N = 300). Time to first hospitalization was analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier methods. Annualized costs were estimated for hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and ED visits. Results: At enrollment, most participants were male (75%), white (95%), commercially insured (64%), smokers (68%), had an FVC between 50% and 80% predicted (66%), and received antifibrotic drugs (55%). During the first 12 months of follow-up, participants averaged 0.11 ED visit, 0.42 hospitalization, 0.08 ICU admission, 2.18 hospital days, and 0.45 ICU day. Probability of hospitalization was 18% and 30% at 6 and 12 months, respectively, and was highest for those with FVC < 50% predicted/diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide < 30% predicted. Mean annual costs (95% CI) for ICU admission and inpatient care were $10,098 ($4,732-$16,662) and $13,975 ($8,482-$20,918), respectively, per patient. Conclusions: IPF is associated with a substantial economic burden incurred by patients requiring hospital care. Future research in IPF should focus on improving clinical outcomes while reducing cost of care in hospitals. Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01915511; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.