Synovial chondromatosis is a rare pathological condition that usually affects large joints but can affect the temporomandibular joint. The disease typically manifests itself with signs and symptoms similar to internal derangement. The disease is characterized by free-floating or attached cartilaginous bodies in the joint space. In this article, the authors present a case of synovial chondromatosis and discuss its pathological process. They also discuss diagnostic approaches and current treatment.