Evaluation of Viscoelastic Properties, Blood Coagulation, and Cellular Responses of a Temperature-Sensitive Gel for Hemostatic Application

Academic Article


  • Hemorrhagic blood loss from traumatic injury is the leading cause of death in severe accidents and combat injuries. Treating and stopping blood loss in a timely and effective manner is essential for the survival of the patient. Currently, QuikClot and dry fibrin sealant dressing are well-known approaches for hemostatic treatment. However, these dressings have limitations in slowing blood loss such as being brittle, low blood absorption, and a poor sealant of the injury site. Temperature-sensitive gels may have potential as a platform for delivery of coagulation factors to improve hemostasis and wound sealing in the treatment of traumatic injuries. Here, we developed a temperature-sensitive triblock copolymer (poly ethylene oxide (PEO)-poly propylene oxide (PPO)-poly ethylene oxide (PEO)) containing fibrinogen to promote blood coagulation through gel formation at body temperature. This temperature sensitive solution-to-gel (sol-gel) transition does not require cross-linking agents or UV photoinitiation. We determined that 22 wt % (weight percent) copolymers with and without fibrinogen was the maximum concentration for sol-gel transition at body temperature. Rheology results further confirmed this sol-gel transition of 22 wt % copolymers at body temperature. We showed that fibrinogen itself promoted blood coagulation. Additionally, 22 wt % copolymer with fibrinogen successfully demonstrated stable blood coagulation within the gel compared to 22 wt % copolymer without fibrinogen. Twenty-two weight percent copolymers with and without fibrinogen also exhibited excellent biocompatibility based on cell viability, proliferation, and morphology analysis. In addition, treatment of 22 wt % copolymers did not stimulate pro-inflammatory TNF-α production from differentiated human monocytes. Our results suggest that 22 wt % of a temperature-sensitive copolymer gel containing fibrinogen has great potential as a hemostatic agent stimulating coagulation and providing immediate wound coverage for protection through a sol-gel transition at body temperature.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Jun J; Millican RC; Sherwood JA; Tucker BS; Vijayan VM; Alexander GC; Thomas V; Brott BC; Hwang PTJ
  • Start Page

  • 3137
  • End Page

  • 3144
  • Volume

  • 3
  • Issue

  • 5