Heart failure (HF) is a chronic, complex condition with increasing incidence worldwide, necessitating the development of novel therapeutic strategies. This has led to the current clinical strategies, which only treat symptoms of HF without addressing the underlying causes. Multiple animal models have been developed in an attempt to recreate the chronic HF phenotype that arises following a variety of myocardial injuries. Although significant strides have been made in HF research, an understanding of more specific mechanisms will require distinguishing models that resemble HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) from those with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Therefore, current mouse models of HF need to be re-assessed to determine which of them most closely recapitulate the specific etiology of HF being studied. This will allow for the development of therapies targeted specifically at HFpEF or HFrEF. This review will summarize the commonly used mouse models of HF and discuss which aspect of human HF each model replicates, focusing on whether HFpEF or HFrEF is induced, to allow better investigation into pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment strategies.