Continuous electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) was first introduced commercially over 50 years ago with the hope of improving perinatal outcomes during labor. However, despite the increased use of EFM, definitive improvements in perinatal outcomes have not been demonstrated. Variance in tracing interpretation and intervention has led to increased rates of cesarean and operative vaginal deliveries and perhaps increased maternal and neonatal morbidity. Since its inception, several strategies have been developed in hopes of optimizing EFM and improving these outcomes. We discuss the current standards of intrapartum fetal monitoring and review optimization strategies and technologies in development to improve intrapartum fetal monitoring.