Proper renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are critical for maintaining normal blood pressure, kidney function and water and electrolyte homeostasis. The renal microvasculature expresses a multitude of receptors mediating vasodilation and vasoconstriction, which can influence glomerular blood flow and capillary pressure. Despite this, RBF and GFR remain quite stable when arterial pressure fluctuates because of the autoregulatory mechanism. ATP and adenosine participate in autoregulatory control of RBF and GFR via activation of two different purinoceptor families (P1 and P2). Purinoceptors are widely expressed in renal microvasculature and tubules. Emerging data show altered purinoceptor signaling in hypertension-associated kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, sepsis, ischemia-reperfusion induced acute kidney injury and polycystic kidney disease. In this brief review, we highlight recent studies and new insights on purinoceptors regulating renal microvascular function and renal hemodynamics. We also address the mechanisms underlying renal microvascular injury and impaired renal autoregulation, focusing on purinoceptor signaling and hypertension-induced renal microvascular dysfunction. Interested readers are directed to several excellent and comprehensive reviews that recently covered the topics of renal autoregulation, and nucleotides in kidney function under physiological and pathophysiological conditions (Inscho 2009, Navar et al. 2008, Carlstrom et al. 2015, Vallon et al. 2020).