© 2020 Elsevier Ltd Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone disease worldwide and predisposes affected individuals to fragility fractures. Exercise has been shown to have multiple health benefits in post-menopausal osteoporotic women, but often recommendations regarding the benefits of specific exercise types are vague. Improving bone mineral density (BMD) is an essential component in any program to prevent osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The objective of this report is to briefly review the current understanding on the impact of exercise on BMD in postmenopausal women as it pertains to fragility fractures. Broad categories of exercises include aerobic, resistance, stretching, and balance. Tai Chi, Yoga, and Pilates are a heterogeneous group of specific exercise modalities that can span multiple categories. Current literature suggests that only resistance type exercises have a convincing impact on BMD. Core-strengthening exercises and attention to posture/balance can help mitigate falls. A number of barriers affect patient compliance and accessibility to exercise. In summary, exercise should be included in any multi-modality osteoporosis treatment plan with the goal of sustained exercise throughout life. If possible, osteoporotic women should be on a resistance-based regimen incorporating weight-bearing exercises, and also target posture and balance. Healthcare providers and educators should have resources readily available for patients.