We discuss the role of the pathologist for MRI-targeted prostate biopsy with a focus on specimen processing, reporting of pathological findings and quality assurance in establishing a successful MRI-targeted biopsy programme. The authors discuss the current issues relevant to pathologists regarding MRI-targeted prostate biopsy. In addition, a brief review of the recently published literature was performed using an English literature search on PubMed with a focus on original investigations related to MRI-targeted prostate biopsy. Our search terms included the following: ‘prostate cancer’, ‘pathology’, ‘histology’, ‘reporting’, ‘cores’, ‘imaging’, ‘MRI’ and ‘mpMRI’. Prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and MRI-targeted biopsy has been shown to improve the diagnosis of clinically significant prostatic adenocarcinoma and can affect the management of patients with prostate cancer. The current active surveillance guidelines were based on data from TRUS biopsies and not MRI-targeted biopsies. MRI-targeted biopsy acquires multiple cores of tissue from one or more suspicious lesions found on mp-MRI. The way in which multiple targeted core biopsies obtained from a single image-directed region of interest are analysed and reported can potentially alter the Gleason score and tumour burden as reported on biopsy, which could undoubtedly alter patient management. Pathologists play an important role in the reporting of MRI-targeted prostate biopsies. How we report prostate cancer grade and extent on these biopsies can influence patient management. In addition, the pathologist should be involved in the quality assurance for patients undergoing MRI-targeted prostate biopsy.