Significance: Fibrosis is a stereotypic, multicellular tissue response to diverse types of injuries that fundamentally result from a failure of cell/tissue regeneration. This complex tissue remodeling response disrupts cellular/matrix composition and homeostatic cell-cell interactions, leading to loss of normal tissue architecture and progressive loss of organ structure/function. Fibrosis is a common feature of chronic diseases that may affect the lung, kidney, liver, and heart. Recent Advances: There is emerging evidence to support a combination of genetic, environmental, and age-related risk factors contributing to susceptibility and/or progression of fibrosis in different organ systems. A core pathway in fibrogenesis involving these organs is the induction and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) family enzymes. Critical Issues: We explore current pharmaceutical approaches to targeting NOX enzymes, including repurposing of currently U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. Specific inhibitors of various NOX homologs will aid establishing roles of NOXs in the various organ fibroses and potential efficacy to impede/halt disease progression. Future Directions: The discovery of novel and highly specific NOX inhibitors will provide opportunities to develop NOX inhibitors for treatment of fibrotic pathologies.