While multiple studies have demonstrated that minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques are a safe and efficacious approach to adrenalectomy for pheochromocytomas (PC), these studies have only been small comparative studies. The aim of this multi-institutional study is to compare perioperative outcomes between open and MIS, stratified by robotic and conventional laparoscopic, techniques in the surgical management of PC. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent adrenalectomy for PCs from 2000 to 2017 at three different institutions. Clinical, perioperative, and pathologic parameters were analyzed using t test, Chi square, and Fisher exact statistical measures. Of the 156 adrenalectomy cases performed, 26 (16.7%) were with an open approach and 130 (83.3%) using MIS techniques. Of the MIS procedures, 41 (31.5%) were performed robotically and 89 (68.5%) performed laparoscopically without robotic assistance. Demographic and clinical parameters were similar between the open and MIS groups. Patients, who underwent MIS procedure had a lower complication rate (p = 0.04), shorter hospitalization (p = 0.02), shorter operative time (p < 0.001), and less blood loss (p = 0.002) than those who underwent open surgical resection. Conventional laparoscopic and robotic operative approaches resulted in similar complication rates, length of hospitalization, and blood loss. Our study is one of the largest cohorts comparing the perioperative outcomes between conventional laparoscopic and robotic adrenalectomies in patients with PC. Our results support that MIS techniques have potentially lower morbidity compared to open techniques, while laparoscopic and robotic approaches have similar perioperative outcomes.