© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Myopia and glaucoma are both increasing in prevalence and are linked by an unknown mechanism as many epidemiologic studies have identified moderate to high myopia as an independent risk factor for glaucoma. Myopia and glaucoma are both chronic conditions that lead to connective tissue remodeling within the sclera and optic nerve head. The mechanobiology underlying connective tissue remodeling differs substantially between both diseases, with different homeostatic control mechanisms. In this article, we discuss similarities and differences between connective tissue remodeling in myopia and glaucoma; selected multiscale mechanisms that are thought to underlie connective tissue remodeling in both conditions; how asymmetric remodeling of the optic nerve head may predispose a myopic eye for pathological remodeling and glaucoma; and how neural tissue deformations may accumulate throughout both pathologies and increase the risk for mechanical insult of retinal ganglion cell axons.